Learning C++


Learning C++
What is C++
C++ is an object-oriented, low-level ANSI and ISO standard programming language. As a low-level language similar to and compatible with its predecessor C, C++ can generate very efficient, very fast programs.
C++ language definition is based on the American National Standards Institute ANSI Standard X3J16. This standard also complies with ISO norm 14882, which was ratified by the International Standardization Organization in 1998.
C++ provides classes,inline functions, operator overloading, constant type references, free store management operators, etc.
The C++ programming language is thus platform-independent in the main with a majority of C++ compilers providing ANSI support.
The most important thing while learning C++ is to focus on concepts.
The purpose of learning a programming language is to become a better programmer; that is, to become more effective at designing and implementing new systems and at maintaining old ones.
History Of C++
C++ is a middle-level programming language By adding object-oriented features attributes and benefits, C++ was developed by Bjarne Stroustrup in 1980 at Bell Labs. C++ runs on a variety of platforms, such as Windows, Mac OS, and the various versions of UNIX.The new language was known as “C with classes” initially. However in 1983, the name was changed to C++.
The development of C++ was an enhancement to an already highly successful programming language.
One of the languages Bjarne Stroustrup had the opportunity to work with was called Simula ,was designed for simulations.The langauge that was regarded as the first language to support the object-oriented paradigm  .
Stimula language was very useful for for software development .
The C language (C with Classes) which included classes , basic inheritance, in-lining , default function arguments and strong type checking in addition to all the features of C language. Wad the first work done by Stroustrup.
However the program which was designed to translate C with Classes code to ordinary C was called Cfront (C with Classes compiler).This compiler was the first one that could compile its self that means it was a self hosting compiler. Due to advancement of technology in the year 1993 , the the compiler Cfront was abandoned due to the failure to integrate new features into it.This compiler made a large impact on the implementations of future compilers mostly on the Unix operating system .
The year which the C with Classes was changed to C++ was in 1985. ++ is the operator in the C language , ++ is used for incrementing variable , which gives some insight into how Bjarne Stroutstrup regarded the language .Single-line comments using two forward slashes (which is a feature taken from the language BCPL),the const keyword , virtual functions , function overloading and references with the (&)symbol, these were the new features which were added in the year 1983.
Before the language was officially standardized ,the language was updated again in 1989 to include protected and static members,as well as inheritance from several classes.In 1985 The C++ Programming Language was published and within this same year C++ was implemented as a commercial product.
Borland’s Turbo C++ added a plethora of additional libraries which would have a considerable impact on C++’s development and the compiler was still widely used.The Annotated C++ Reference Manual was said to be a large influence in the development of the standard. The Standard Template Library, which began its conceptual development in 1979, was also included.That same year 1990 The Annotated C++ Reference Manual was released.However in the year 1998 , the first international standard fro C++ ISO/IEX14882:1998 was published by the C++ standards committee which is know as C++98.
For more information check these following suggested books 
(i)Bjarne Stroustrup (2013) The C++ Programming Language 4rd Edition , Prentice-Hall , New York 
(ii) Chuck A and Eckel B.(2012)Thinking in C++ Practical Programming Second Edition ,Pearson ,New York , USA